Implementing Bologna Process in Kurdistan Region: Barriers Facing its Future and Implementation.

Assist. Prof. Dr. Jamal Ali Omar
University of Raparin

Lecturer Araz Mohammed Ismail
University of Raparin


The current study is to investigate the implementation of Bologna Process (BP) in Kurdistan Region, University of Raparin as an example. The primary objective of the study is to find out to what extent BP can be implemented, and what sort of barriers can hinder its full implementation. To this end, data was collected from six departments at UoR which have already started to implement the process back in 2018. The data was collected by using semi-structured interviews conducted to head of the six piloting departments and administers, and in-service teachers. A questionnaire was also utilized to collect data from students in those departments. The data was analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively to describe the implementation process and its main barriers. The results showed the implementation process has undergone some difficulties including lack of clear regulations and the previous working ones. Similarly, the teachers faced problems such as students’ disengagement in the learning activities, large class size, lack of clear learning objectives. The students have also faced problems such as lack of information about the process, too many exams and assessments, they did not accustom to such type of study which is totally different from their earlier study, the culture of gaining degrees and passing exam, lack of interest and motivation to their studies which might be due to future prospects. In the light of the results, it is suggested that a national framework should be set to implement the process successfully, working on changing teachers’ and students’ mindsets and perspectives towards the gains that will awarded after gaining the degree, and changing assessment types and forms to provide the suitable chances for learners to demonstrate their skills and competencies.